Creating Psychological Safety from the Inside Out

Organizations that seek to stay relevant through continuous learning and agile execution must cultivate a fearless environment that encourages speaking up. In any company that thrives in our complex and uncertain world, leaders must be listening intently, with a deep understanding that people are both the sensors who pick up signals that change is necessary and the source of creative new ideas to test and implement. Amy Edmonson, The Fearless Organization

I finished reading Amy Edmonson’s new book, The Fearless Organization, a few weeks ago. It’s about psychological safety–what it is, why it matters and how to cultivate it. As I read the book I had two alternating thoughts. At times it felt simple–almost too simple. Speaking up matters. A lot. Psychological safety is all about speaking up. On the other hand, it’s complicated–even complex. Speaking up doesn’t come easily for many people and, in organizational settings, it can be exceptionally difficult. Creating the conditions for psychological safety is an intentional act of leadership.

Edmonson first stumbled upon the importance of psychological safety while researching medical errors in hospitals. The initial results showed more errors in the teams that scored as “better.” That’s not what she expected. So she dug deeper and discovered that the better teams were willing to speak up about mistakes and address them. The less effective teams hid errors–there was a lack of psychological safety. It’s important to note that Edmonson is not presenting psychological as a silver bullet– it does not guarantee team or organizational success. Without psychological safety, however, it is much harder to succeed–to produce innovative, powerful results. So, to reiterate the first point above, psychological safety matters a great deal.

Now here’s the thing that really struck me as I read Edmondson’s book. Psychological safety could be strong in one team and weak in another–in the same hospital. Local leaders (in this case, primarily doctors) determined the level of safety. This points to the role of individual team leaders in influencing the level of safety in their teams–making it safer or less safe than the dominant culture.

Let’s go back to the simplicity and the complexity of establishing psychological safety. What is it that individual leaders can and must do to encourage their team members to speak up–to share ideas, speak about their challenges, be willing to say what they aren’t sure others really want to hear? Edmonson’s Leader’s Toolkit (Chapter 7) provides specific suggestions and practices for creating the conditions, inviting participation and responding when people speak up. (An excerpt from this chapter is available in Strategy and Business.) While this toolkit is made up of deceptively simple actions, for these actions to be effective leaders must have the capacity to execute them, and that is anything but simple.

Creating and supporting the conditions necessary for psychological safety requires the capacity to say one does not know and to listen with interest and openness to other views. It requires the ability to appreciate ideas that don’t jive with one’s often strongly-held opinions (and the willingness to hold those opinions lightly.) It requires the capacity to hear the words someone is speaking even when the delivery is poor or the timing less than perfect. It requires that we recognize that our view is one view only and that we could be wrong. It requires that mistakes and failures, even the preventable and careless ones, are discussable. (Edmonson offers up a useful taxonomy of failures.) It requires that we abandon the misbegotten and widely promoted idea that we shouldn’t bring up problems if we don’t have solutions. It requires that we make it easy for people who struggle to speak up to do so–that we solicit input from the quieter people on our teams–that we as leaders practice inquiry as much, if not more, than advocacy. It requires that we allow ourselves to be vulnerable.

These requirements demand that we look at the ways that we respond (or react), day in, day out–and honestly assess our own performance (and ask for feedback from others.) They demand that we start with ourselves and the ways that we are showing up as leaders. They demand that we develop tools to manage our state–to catch ourselves before we react defensively. They demand that we recognize the power that we have to influence the psychological health and safety of the teams we lead–that we recognize the power we have as leaders to positively or negatively influence our teams.

If you are already someone who tolerates uncertainty well, who embraces not knowing, who can listen without defensiveness and who can be vulnerable–it’s likely that your team already experiences a high level of psychological safety. It’s also likely that there’s even more you can do and that, by working on how you self-manage and self-regulate and on your relationship to not knowing and to uncertainty, that you can take that to even higher levels. And, if you read this and recognize that you are not yet there–know that you can develop these capacities. Through practice (and practices) you can develop new habits and behaviors. And if you’re not sure how you’re showing up–one of the ways to begin to increase the level of psychological safety in your team is to get curious–to have candid conversations and solicit feedback.

So take some time as we begin a new year to think about where you are now and what you can do to cultivate your capacity to support your team’s psychological safety.

Related posts:

Overcoming Your Habit Nature: Embrace Your Saboteurs provides suggestions for working with some of our more entrenched habits–including the ones that are limiting our capacity to support psychological safety.

The Age of the Uncertain Leader speaks to the necessity of embracing uncertainty and some practical ways to do just that.

 

 

 

Best of 2018: Books, Podcasts and Blogs

As 2018 comes to a close, I’ve been reflecting on the things I’ve read and learned this year. Here’s my “best of” list. It includes the books, podcasts and blogs that enriched, expanded and challenge my thinking this year. I hope you find one or two things that appeal to you and that you can learn from in 2019.

Learning About Complexity

The most important thing I discovered this year was that complexity is not only something we’re dealing with (increasingly!), it’s also the topic of serious study and a profound body of work. For an orientation to one dimension of that work, here’s a post I wrote this fall that summarizes much of what I’ve learned. Recognizing that we can develop greater personal capacity to work with complexity has allowed me to feel less fearful about the pace of change and the uncertainty that we confront daily. This is a framework that I’ve used one-on-one with coaching clients, brought to teams of leaders to explore together, and talked to family and friends about at the dinner table.

Books to Read and Savor

My teacher, Doug Silsbee, wrote his first book specifically directed to leaders rather than coaches. Presence-Based Leadership holds a special place for me as Doug published it just weeks before he died of a rare cancer. The book is a guide for tackling complexity challenges. Doug embraced his own death as his final complexity challenge and shared his journey with grace, wit and vulnerability. I write about that here in case you are interested in learning more about Doug. And, if you’re a coach or interested in coaching, Doug’s first book, The Mindful Coach is one of, if not the best, book I’ve read about coaching.

Margaret Wheatley, who wrote Leadership and the New Science over 25 years ago–and is also a student of systems theory and, more recently, complexity sciences–this year published Who Do We Choose To Be?: Facing Reality, Claiming Leadership, Restoring Sanity. While Wheatley’s assessment of our current reality can at times feel harsh, this is ultimately a powerful and inspiring book suggesting that what we do, day to day, moment to moment, matters deeply.

I highly recommend Amanda Blake’s Your Body is Your Brain. Amanda, a wonderful teacher, shares inspiring stories and practical guidance for making change that lasts by attending to both body and brain and the linkage between the two. This book is a great read for leaders and coaches (and not quite as heavy as the first two books.) My most recent post provides a small introduction, drawing on both Doug and Amanda’s work, to the power of somatic (body) work.

Podcasts to Walk With

For me, podcasts and walking go together. Podcasts get me walking, walking gets me to listen to podcasts. I’ve traversed many, many miles while listening to these podcasts. You can listen while driving, doing housework or at your desk, of course!

My day is not complete without listening to the New York Times podcast, The Daily. Each day, for 20 minutes or so, I learn about one story in the news, in depth. While it’s often the “obvious” story of the day, just as often, it’s not. It’s a deeper dive into something I was barely aware of or not aware of at all. I’ve stopped listening to all cable news–so this is one of the few ways I “hear” about the world. (There are other, very good, political podcasts, but this is the only one I listen to all the time.)

While the Coaches Rising Podcast is ostensibly for coaches, I’m including it here since some of you work as coaches and I think that even if you don’t, you’d enjoy listening to the amazing collection of interviews that Joel Monk, one of the co-founders of Coaches Rising conducts on a regular basis with some of the most profound and inspiring people in the coaching universe. Coaches Rising also offers affordable and superbly designed and executed courses for Coaches and those interested in coaching.

One of the ways I’ve learned more about complexity is through the Human Current podcast. Angie Cross and Haley Campbell-Gross host conversations with a wide array of people who explore many different aspects of complexity. One of the most powerful episodes this year is the conversation with Meg Wheatley (see above)–though, honestly, you can’t go wrong with any episode you choose to listen to!

Other podcasts that are oriented to coaches and leaders include Tim Ferris’s podcast–which is almost always a rewarding listen, Amiel Handelsman’s podcast (there are two episodes with Doug Silsbee that are exceptional!) and Work/Life with Adam Grant (there are a limited number of episodes and they are all good.)

Blogs to Follow

Four of the blogs I follow most closely explore the topic of complexity. These include the writing of  Sonja Blignaut, Chris Corrigan and Dave Snowden . Other writers/blogger/collectors of insight whose work I’ve come to appreciate include Jennifer Garvey Berger (and her colleagues,) Ed Batista, Mark Storm, Bruce McTague, Jane Watson and Carol Sanford. What all of these people have in common is a willingness to dig deeper–beneath the surface–and almost always surprise me with a new thought or perspective or way of framing something. I recommend them all highly. And, they are all people who have rich Twitter feeds–demonstrating that, used thoughtfully, Twitter can be a force for good. (And, I know I’ve missed some of the people whose work I really enjoy in this list!)

Collections

I also want to point to two collections of posts that I’ve started contributing to and enjoy a great deal. Lets Grow Leaders and the Lead Change Group both share monthly collections, typically around different topics in leadership, for your reading pleasure. You will often find my posts, both the ones I write here and the ones I write for Actionable, in their collections.

Wishing you a good close to 2018 and beginning of 2019! Happy reading and listening!

Finding Center in Turbulent Times

The source of our unease is the unfulfillable longing for a lasting certainty and security, for something solid to hold on to. When something unexpected or not to our liking happens, we think something has gone wrong. We are never encouraged to experience the ebb and flow of our moods, of our health, of the weather, of outer events – pleasant and unpleasant – in their fullness. Instead we stay caught in a fearful, narrow holding pattern of avoiding any pain and continually seeking comfort. This is a universal dilemma.

Pema Chodron, Taking the Leap

The Moment We Are In

In the past year I’ve discovered and become absorbed, even obsessed, with the study of complexity. One of the most important things I’ve learned is that in the complex domain things are unpredictable and unknowable. Only in retrospect can we see cause and effect. Our capacity to accurately identify and to then navigate–rather than plan–in complexity requires a level of awareness–of consciousness–different from what was required in simpler times or in response to more predictable challenges. To navigate complexity requires that we be present–and from being present respond in a creative, reflective and non-reactive manner.

In the last few weeks I’ve felt overwhelmed by–at times done in by–the complexity (and chaos) of the world around us. In the last days, with the attempted bombing of key Democratic figures, and the shootings in both Kentucky and Pittsburgh by avowed racists and Anti-Semites, it has felt all too close and all too scary. Drawing a wider circle, the recent election in Brazil is frightening as is the general rise of anti-Democratic forces in areas of the world that we thought were sturdier in their embrace of democracy.

And, complexity is increasing beyond the particular political moment. Climate change looms over us, income inequality and all that is associated with it is still a strong force both here in the US and globally, technological advances are both wondrous and frightening. In our lives and organizations complexity abounds–as we learn to adapt to rapidly changing conditions and to a faster and faster pace. There is, appropriately, a great deal of talk about leadership, the subject I study and that is the basis of my work.

At a time when what I study and what I do every day is converging with the world outside—I cannot keep them each contained in their own, separate lanes. So, I think about what I have learned and how I can apply it in this moment. What I am sure of is that, by definition, there is no magic bullet. Each of us needs to decide what we will and won’t do–how politically active to be or not to be, how much to let in and how much to shut out.

In this spirit, I offer a practice that I believe can be a support and a learning tool in this moment–Centering. It’s a simple and powerful way to build the capacity to stand still in the midst of complexity so that we can make wise choices. It affords us a critical pause to reorient and remind ourselves that perhaps the most important choice we can make in this moment is who we choose to be—even more than what we choose to do.

The Practice of Centering

In 2013 I left the job that I’d had from 1998, and for the first time in my adult life had neither a job nor a salary. My intention was to use this transition, which included a generous severance package, as a launchpad for creating my own coaching and facilitation business. I had zero experience with not having a paycheck and the unpredictability that came with that. My parents were civil servants—I grew up with the stability and predictability that this afforded and never saw them struggle financially—though they lived frugally. I was excited and terrified.

My first investment in this new direction was to study. (No surprise there!) I had read a wonderful book called The Mindful Coach by Doug Silsbee, learned that he taught a program called Presence-Based Coaching, and signed up for a a series of retreats in Asheville, North Carolina to extend my coach training.

On our first morning together, we gathered in a beautiful retreat center in the Smoky Mountains. Doug, who was to become one of the most important teachers in my life, led us in a Centering practice. We stood in a circle and closed our eyes as Doug asked us to pay attention–first to our length, then to our width and finally to our depth. Each dimension was associated with a different quality–length with dignity, width with connection and depth with sufficiency. After spending five, maybe ten minutes experiencing these different dimensions, Doug asked us to “drop in” to our centers and ask ourselves what mattered most–to sense this rather than think it. (Instructions for the practice are provided at the end of this post.)

As we debriefed the practice, Doug shared that this wasn’t “just” a guided meditation but a specific somatic practice. By attuning to our bodies (our somas) in this way, we were finding where and how we could be better resourced—better equipped to be present and to access that feeling of being centered when we needed it. The practice was scalable. If we had one minute, that was sufficient. If we had ten seconds we could take three breaths–one into each dimension. Doug asked us to commit to practicing multiple (10, 15, 25!) times a day. He promised that doing this regularly would change us.

Being the good student, I did what Doug asked of us. I practiced frequently between retreats. Multiple times a day I would breathe into these three dimensions. And, as Doug had promised, I did notice changes. In a moment when life had become less predictable, when I was noticing just how scary it was to lose the certainty of a paycheck, I had this practice to draw on. It allowed me to ground myself, to remind myself that I was enough. It didn’t change everything–my fears were strong and the discomfort was enormous–that didn’t go away–and it felt somehow more manageable.

My first experience with centering was enough for me to realize that there was something to this! I saw the value of a practice that I could access whenever I needed it—that extended beyond my morning meditation. I felt grateful that I was just a little bit more confident, a little bit more present in conversations that mattered—that this simple, quick practice could really do that much.

Evolution of a Practice

As I built my coaching clientele, I occasionally offered this Centering practice to my clients at the start of a session. When I did it was usually well-received–but I wasn’t always comfortable suggesting it or leading it. I loved being guided, but being the guide was new territory for me–leading a centering practice was not yet in my comfort zone and I was nervous about trying it with people who didn’t seem like this would be their kind of thing–even though my assessments were likely inaccurate.

For the next few years I would sometimes center and often forget. I meditated daily and figured that was enough. If I was speaking publicly, I’d center before I spoke but not much more.

A couple of years ago, as I began to learn more about somatics (the body stuff) and complexity, I returned to the practice of Centering. At this moment, when the world was spinning in a direction that terrified me, it felt even more important. I have become more consistent in my practice—doing it both in response to triggers and at random points in the day. I am more consistent about bringing centering to my clients.

Centering is no longer a tool for facing the challenges of starting a business. I feel confident about my work and business—more than I ever expected to. Sure, there are ups and downs, but I know how to weather those pretty well. Today, Centering is the way that I find my ground. When I center, I am able to come back to the present moment and see more clearly, sense more clearly and make better choices. Given that my life and work is expressed almost entirely in words, these are most often choices about what to say and what not to say.

More often than not I am able to catch myself when I have the urge to give a client advice and listen more. More often than not, though with greater difficulty than in the work domain, I am able to step back from a potential fight with my husband or daughter and recognize that the words I want to say may not be the wisest words to say. When I center, I am able to allow the words that need to be said to emerge and to trust that this will happen. When I center I am more able—and this remains hard—to recognize that in this troubling moment in our world—I can make wise choices.

Centering isn’t Magic. It’s Biology.

The two people who’ve helped me most to understand Centering are Doug Silsbee, who I mentioned earlier, and Amanda Blake.

Doug’s recent Presence-Based Leadership: Complexity Practices for Clarity, Resilience and Results that Matter is his first book for general audience (rather than focused on coaches.) It is also his final book—Doug died just around the time of its publication. Perhaps the highest recommendation for his work is that he embraced death consciously, remaining centered and present until the very end. He viewed dying as a “complexity challenge” and applied the tools in the book to this chapter in his life. (For more on that, see the post  I wrote just after Doug’s death.)

Amanda is a coach and teacher, and just published a wonderful book, Your Body is Your Brain. Full of powerful case studies, she shows the power of engaging our whole selves, inclusive of our bodies, in addressing the challenges we face as humans and leaders.

For both Doug and Amanda, the centering practice I’ve described here is foundational.

Amanda’s Wisdom

 Our bodies, our brains, and even our behavior take shapequite literallyin response to our life experiences. And that biobehavioral shape ultimately affects the possibilities we see, the options we choose, and the actions we take. 

Our bodies are quite brilliant in knowing how to take care of us. The problem is that conditions change and “the brilliant way the brain puts behaviors on autopilot means that sometimes those once-useful ways of being become outdated.” When we center we are able to sense what is happening in the moment, to no longer be on autopilot. Centering allows us to notice sensations as sensations, to tolerate them when they are uncomfortable, and to choose not to “automatically act to make the discomfort disappear. 

Doug’s Wisdom

Doug suggests that we can learn “de-couple” our inner states from what he calls our Context (what is happening around us.) Doug writes that “by de-coupling our inner state from the conditions of our Context, we discover freedom and resilience.”

Centering does double-duty. In addition to supporting us in the moment that we center, we are training our bodies so that the next time we seek to decouple state from Context, that is a little more accessible. Over time centering becomes an available response to being triggered and, ultimately, we are triggered less and less forcefully. In sharing the Centering practice, Doug writes the following about what is happening within us, at a neurobiological level:

Invite the awareness that, in this very moment, the quality of your attention tells your hippocampus that this specific state is important enough to encode for future access. The inner state of center is being telegraphed across your entire nervous system. You are actively initiating the process of neuroplastic change, creating associations between neuronal networks of this state, in order to record it in long-term memory. 

Centering changes our brains and our bodies.

Last Words

There is no magic bullet. The world is complex and at times feels as if it’s veering into chaos. Yet, with practice, we can be more present and more centered. From that place of center we can access greater wisdom so that we can be our best even in this moment. When we are at our best we can make wiser choices that will support, in some small way, the creation of a world that is a better place for the people who live in it.

The Practice (Adapted from Doug Silsbee)

  • Stand or sit comfortably. Make sure that your feet are making contact with the ground, if you are sitting.
  • Take a moment and notice any sensations you’re feeling. Use this first moment to “drop into” what you are sensing, to your body.
  • Center in length. Sense the bottoms of your feet on the ground. Relax your shoulders. Relax your jaw. Let your gaze be soft. Now imagine that you can rise up, that your head is connected to the sky as if by a string. The dimension of length is the dimension of dignity. As you stand in your full height, you embody dignity.
  • Center in width. Gently rock your weight from side to side. Find the balanced place in the center of this dimension. Visualize yourself extending to each side, expanding, taking up space.This is the dimension of connection, we take up space and we share space.
  • Center in depth. Bring awareness to the space behind you, as if you had a massive tail extending out along the ground. Allow yourself to feel supported by this mass. In it you hold your wisdom, your experience. This is the dimension of sufficiency.
  • The last dimension is commitment. Focus on the space just below your belly, your center. Ask yourself: “In this moment what matters most? What’s really important? What do I care about?” If this is available to you, sense your commitment throughout all the dimensions.
  • Remember that this is scalable–and can be done in just a few seconds or for several minutes. You can focus on just one or just two dimensions.
  • A seven-minute version of the practice is available in this video, presented by a teacher at the Strozzi Institute for Embodied Leadership.